Modern Slavery

What is modern slavery and human trafficking?

The Act: WHAT is done

e.g. Recruitment, transfer, transportation, harbouring or receipt of persons. NOTE: Where a victim is a child, only ACT and PURPOSE are required.

The Means: HOW it is done

e.g. threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or position of vulnerability, giving or receiving of payments or benefits used to control a person.

The Purpose: WHY it is done

e.g. to exploit a person through prostitution, other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery, servitude or removal of organs from a person.

Sexual Exploitation – A person trafficked for sex may be controlled by violence, threats, substance abuse, deception, or grooming, with extreme physical or psychological domination.


Forced Labour – Forced labour is work done under the threat of a penalty such as violence or harm to family. Victims are often further controlled by debt bondage.


Domestic Servitude – A person is forced to provide services with the obligation to live on or in a property without the possibility of changing those circumstances.


Organ Harvesting – A person who is trafficked and specifically chosen for the harvesting of organs or tissues, such as kidneys, liver etc. without consent, to be sold.


Criminal exploitation – A person who is coerced and forced to commit criminal activities such as county lines.

Spot the signs

General indicators

Trafficking victims are often lured into another country by false promises and so may not easily trust others. They may:

Sexual Exploitation

Be aware: ordinary residential housing/hotels are being used more and more for brothels. People forced into sexual exploitation may:

Forced Labour

Where all the work is done under the menace of a penalty or the person has not offered himself voluntarily and is now unable to leave. They may experience:

Domestic Servitude

A particularly serious form of denial of freedom; this includes the obligation to provide certain services and the obligation to live on another person property without the possibility of changing those circumstances. They may:

How to spot possible victims of county lines

There are several signs to look out for when someone has been lured into this activity; these include:

Who is Affected?

The number of people identified as potential victims of Modern Slavery has been rising year on year, with over 10,000 people referred to authorities in 2019. The true number of people trapped in Modern Slavery is estimated to be much higher. Modern Slavery in the UK can take many forms including sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, criminal exploitation, domestic servitude and organ harvesting. Forced labour is the most commonly identified form of Modern Slavery in the UK, fuelled by a drive for cheap products and services, with little regard for the people behind them. Criminal exploitation is a growing form of Modern Slavery. In the UK, British children are commonly forced into ‘county lines’ drug trafficking and Vietnamese nationals are trafficked to work in cannabis production.

Modern Slavery can affect children and adults irrespective of age, ethnicity, gender, religion or background.